TEXT   18

zram: Compressed RAM based block devices

Guest on 31st July 2022 01:12:37 AM

  1. zram: Compressed RAM based block devices
  2. ----------------------------------------
  4. * Introduction
  6. The zram module creates RAM based block devices named /dev/zram<id>
  7. (<id> = 0, 1, ...). Pages written to these disks are compressed and stored
  8. in memory itself. These disks allow very fast I/O and compression provides
  9. good amounts of memory savings. Some of the usecases include /tmp storage,
  10. use as swap disks, various caches under /var and maybe many more :)
  12. Statistics for individual zram devices are exported through sysfs nodes at
  13. /sys/block/zram<id>/
  15. * Usage
  17. There are several ways to configure and manage zram device(-s):
  18. a) using zram and zram_control sysfs attributes
  19. b) using zramctl utility, provided by util-linux (util-linux@vger.kernel.org).
  21. In this document we will describe only 'manual' zram configuration steps,
  22. IOW, zram and zram_control sysfs attributes.
  24. In order to get a better idea about zramctl please consult util-linux
  25. documentation, zramctl man-page or `zramctl --help'. Please be informed
  26. that zram maintainers do not develop/maintain util-linux or zramctl, should
  27. you have any questions please contact util-linux@vger.kernel.org
  29. Following shows a typical sequence of steps for using zram.
  32. =======
  33. For the sake of simplicity we skip error checking parts in most of the
  34. examples below. However, it is your sole responsibility to handle errors.
  36. zram sysfs attributes always return negative values in case of errors.
  37. The list of possible return codes:
  38. -EBUSY  -- an attempt to modify an attribute that cannot be changed once
  39. the device has been initialised. Please reset device first;
  40. -ENOMEM -- zram was not able to allocate enough memory to fulfil your
  41. needs;
  42. -EINVAL -- invalid input has been provided.
  44. If you use 'echo', the returned value that is changed by 'echo' utility,
  45. and, in general case, something like:
  47.         echo 3 > /sys/block/zram0/max_comp_streams
  48.         if [ $? -ne 0 ];
  49.                 handle_error
  50.         fi
  52. should suffice.
  54. 1) Load Module:
  55.         modprobe zram num_devices=4
  56.         This creates 4 devices: /dev/zram{0,1,2,3}
  58. num_devices parameter is optional and tells zram how many devices should be
  59. pre-created. Default: 1.
  61. 2) Set max number of compression streams
  62. Regardless the value passed to this attribute, ZRAM will always
  63. allocate multiple compression streams - one per online CPUs - thus
  64. allowing several concurrent compression operations. The number of
  65. allocated compression streams goes down when some of the CPUs
  66. become offline. There is no single-compression-stream mode anymore,
  67. unless you are running a UP system or has only 1 CPU online.
  69. To find out how many streams are currently available:
  70.         cat /sys/block/zram0/max_comp_streams
  72. 3) Select compression algorithm
  73. Using comp_algorithm device attribute one can see available and
  74. currently selected (shown in square brackets) compression algorithms,
  75. change selected compression algorithm (once the device is initialised
  76. there is no way to change compression algorithm).
  78. Examples:
  79.         #show supported compression algorithms
  80.         cat /sys/block/zram0/comp_algorithm
  81.         lzo [lz4]
  83.         #select lzo compression algorithm
  84.         echo lzo > /sys/block/zram0/comp_algorithm
  86. For the time being, the `comp_algorithm' content does not necessarily
  87. show every compression algorithm supported by the kernel. We keep this
  88. list primarily to simplify device configuration and one can configure
  89. a new device with a compression algorithm that is not listed in
  90. `comp_algorithm'. The thing is that, internally, ZRAM uses Crypto API
  91. and, if some of the algorithms were built as modules, it's impossible
  92. to list all of them using, for instance, /proc/crypto or any other
  93. method. This, however, has an advantage of permitting the usage of
  94. custom crypto compression modules (implementing S/W or H/W compression).
  96. 4) Set Disksize
  97. Set disk size by writing the value to sysfs node 'disksize'.
  98. The value can be either in bytes or you can use mem suffixes.
  99. Examples:
  100.         # Initialize /dev/zram0 with 50MB disksize
  101.         echo $((50*1024*1024)) > /sys/block/zram0/disksize
  103.         # Using mem suffixes
  104.         echo 256K > /sys/block/zram0/disksize
  105.         echo 512M > /sys/block/zram0/disksize
  106.         echo 1G > /sys/block/zram0/disksize
  108. Note:
  109. There is little point creating a zram of greater than twice the size of memory
  110. since we expect a 2:1 compression ratio. Note that zram uses about 0.1% of the
  111. size of the disk when not in use so a huge zram is wasteful.
  113. 5) Set memory limit: Optional
  114. Set memory limit by writing the value to sysfs node 'mem_limit'.
  115. The value can be either in bytes or you can use mem suffixes.
  116. In addition, you could change the value in runtime.
  117. Examples:
  118.         # limit /dev/zram0 with 50MB memory
  119.         echo $((50*1024*1024)) > /sys/block/zram0/mem_limit
  121.         # Using mem suffixes
  122.         echo 256K > /sys/block/zram0/mem_limit
  123.         echo 512M > /sys/block/zram0/mem_limit
  124.         echo 1G > /sys/block/zram0/mem_limit
  126.         # To disable memory limit
  127.         echo 0 > /sys/block/zram0/mem_limit
  129. 6) Activate:
  130.         mkswap /dev/zram0
  131.         swapon /dev/zram0
  133.         mkfs.ext4 /dev/zram1
  134.         mount /dev/zram1 /tmp
  136. 7) Add/remove zram devices
  138. zram provides a control interface, which enables dynamic (on-demand) device
  139. addition and removal.
  141. In order to add a new /dev/zramX device, perform read operation on hot_add
  142. attribute. This will return either new device's device id (meaning that you
  143. can use /dev/zram<id>) or error code.
  145. Example:
  146.         cat /sys/class/zram-control/hot_add
  147.         1
  149. To remove the existing /dev/zramX device (where X is a device id)
  150. execute
  151.         echo X > /sys/class/zram-control/hot_remove
  153. 8) Stats:
  154. Per-device statistics are exported as various nodes under /sys/block/zram<id>/
  156. A brief description of exported device attributes. For more details please
  157. read Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-block-zram.
  159. Name                    access            description
  160. ----                    ------            -----------
  161. disksize                RW      show and set the device's disk size
  162. initstate               RO      shows the initialization state of the device
  163. reset                   WO      trigger device reset
  164. mem_used_max            WO      reset the `mem_used_max' counter (see later)
  165. mem_limit               WO      specifies the maximum amount of memory ZRAM can use
  166.                                 to store the compressed data
  167. writeback_limit         WO      specifies the maximum amount of write IO zram can
  168.                                 write out to backing device as 4KB unit
  169. writeback_limit_enable  RW      show and set writeback_limit feature
  170. max_comp_streams        RW      the number of possible concurrent compress operations
  171. comp_algorithm          RW      show and change the compression algorithm
  172. compact                 WO      trigger memory compaction
  173. debug_stat              RO      this file is used for zram debugging purposes
  174. backing_dev             RW      set up backend storage for zram to write out
  175. idle                    WO      mark allocated slot as idle
  178. User space is advised to use the following files to read the device statistics.
  180. File /sys/block/zram<id>/stat
  182. Represents block layer statistics. Read Documentation/block/stat.txt for
  183. details.
  185. File /sys/block/zram<id>/io_stat
  187. The stat file represents device's I/O statistics not accounted by block
  188. layer and, thus, not available in zram<id>/stat file. It consists of a
  189. single line of text and contains the following stats separated by
  190. whitespace:
  191.  failed_reads     the number of failed reads
  192.  failed_writes    the number of failed writes
  193.  invalid_io       the number of non-page-size-aligned I/O requests
  194.  notify_free      Depending on device usage scenario it may account
  195.                   a) the number of pages freed because of swap slot free
  196.                   notifications or b) the number of pages freed because of
  197.                   REQ_OP_DISCARD requests sent by bio. The former ones are
  198.                   sent to a swap block device when a swap slot is freed,
  199.                   which implies that this disk is being used as a swap disk.
  200.                   The latter ones are sent by filesystem mounted with
  201.                   discard option, whenever some data blocks are getting
  202.                   discarded.
  204. File /sys/block/zram<id>/mm_stat
  206. The stat file represents device's mm statistics. It consists of a single
  207. line of text and contains the following stats separated by whitespace:
  208.  orig_data_size   uncompressed size of data stored in this disk.
  209.                   This excludes same-element-filled pages (same_pages) since
  210.                   no memory is allocated for them.
  211.                   Unit: bytes
  212.  compr_data_size  compressed size of data stored in this disk
  213.  mem_used_total   the amount of memory allocated for this disk. This
  214.                   includes allocator fragmentation and metadata overhead,
  215.                   allocated for this disk. So, allocator space efficiency
  216.                   can be calculated using compr_data_size and this statistic.
  217.                   Unit: bytes
  218.  mem_limit        the maximum amount of memory ZRAM can use to store
  219.                   the compressed data
  220.  mem_used_max     the maximum amount of memory zram have consumed to
  221.                   store the data
  222.  same_pages       the number of same element filled pages written to this disk.
  223.                   No memory is allocated for such pages.
  224.  pages_compacted  the number of pages freed during compaction
  225.  huge_pages       the number of incompressible pages
  227. File /sys/block/zram<id>/bd_stat
  229. The stat file represents device's backing device statistics. It consists of
  230. a single line of text and contains the following stats separated by whitespace:
  231.  bd_count       size of data written in backing device.
  232.                 Unit: 4K bytes
  233.  bd_reads       the number of reads from backing device
  234.                 Unit: 4K bytes
  235.  bd_writes      the number of writes to backing device
  236.                 Unit: 4K bytes
  238. 9) Deactivate:
  239.         swapoff /dev/zram0
  240.         umount /dev/zram1
  242. 10) Reset:
  243.         Write any positive value to 'reset' sysfs node
  244.         echo 1 > /sys/block/zram0/reset
  245.         echo 1 > /sys/block/zram1/reset
  247.         This frees all the memory allocated for the given device and
  248.         resets the disksize to zero. You must set the disksize again
  249.         before reusing the device.
  251. * Optional Feature
  253. = writeback
  255. With CONFIG_ZRAM_WRITEBACK, zram can write idle/incompressible page
  256. to backing storage rather than keeping it in memory.
  257. To use the feature, admin should set up backing device via
  259.         "echo /dev/sda5 > /sys/block/zramX/backing_dev"
  261. before disksize setting. It supports only partition at this moment.
  262. If admin want to use incompressible page writeback, they could do via
  264.         "echo huge > /sys/block/zramX/write"
  266. To use idle page writeback, first, user need to declare zram pages
  267. as idle.
  269.         "echo all > /sys/block/zramX/idle"
  271. From now on, any pages on zram are idle pages. The idle mark
  272. will be removed until someone request access of the block.
  273. IOW, unless there is access request, those pages are still idle pages.
  275. Admin can request writeback of those idle pages at right timing via
  277.         "echo idle > /sys/block/zramX/writeback"
  279. With the command, zram writeback idle pages from memory to the storage.
  281. If there are lots of write IO with flash device, potentially, it has
  282. flash wearout problem so that admin needs to design write limitation
  283. to guarantee storage health for entire product life.
  285. To overcome the concern, zram supports "writeback_limit" feature.
  286. The "writeback_limit_enable"'s default value is 0 so that it doesn't limit
  287. any writeback. IOW, if admin want to apply writeback budget, he should
  288. enable writeback_limit_enable via
  290.         $ echo 1 > /sys/block/zramX/writeback_limit_enable
  292. Once writeback_limit_enable is set, zram doesn't allow any writeback
  293. until admin set the budget via /sys/block/zramX/writeback_limit.
  295. (If admin doesn't enable writeback_limit_enable, writeback_limit's value
  296. assigned via /sys/block/zramX/writeback_limit is meaninless.)
  298. If admin want to limit writeback as per-day 400M, he could do it
  299. like below.
  301.         $ MB_SHIFT=20
  302.         $ 4K_SHIFT=12
  303.         $ echo $((400<<MB_SHIFT>>4K_SHIFT)) > \
  304.                 /sys/block/zram0/writeback_limit.
  305.         $ echo 1 > /sys/block/zram0/writeback_limit_enable
  307. If admin want to allow further write again once the bugdet is exausted,
  308. he could do it like below
  310.         $ echo $((400<<MB_SHIFT>>4K_SHIFT)) > \
  311.                 /sys/block/zram0/writeback_limit
  313. If admin want to see remaining writeback budget since he set,
  315.         $ cat /sys/block/zramX/writeback_limit
  317. If admin want to disable writeback limit, he could do
  319.         $ echo 0 > /sys/block/zramX/writeback_limit_enable
  321. The writeback_limit count will reset whenever you reset zram(e.g.,
  322. system reboot, echo 1 > /sys/block/zramX/reset) so keeping how many of
  323. writeback happened until you reset the zram to allocate extra writeback
  324. budget in next setting is user's job.
  326. If admin want to measure writeback count in a certain period, he could
  327. know it via /sys/block/zram0/bd_stat's 3rd column.
  329. = memory tracking
  331. With CONFIG_ZRAM_MEMORY_TRACKING, user can know information of the
  332. zram block. It could be useful to catch cold or incompressible
  333. pages of the process with*pagemap.
  334. If you enable the feature, you could see block state via
  335. /sys/kernel/debug/zram/zram0/block_state". The output is as follows,
  337.           300    75.033841 .wh.
  338.           301    63.806904 s...
  339.           302    63.806919 ..hi
  341. First column is zram's block index.
  342. Second column is access time since the system was booted
  343. Third column is state of the block.
  344. (s: same page
  345. w: written page to backing store
  346. h: huge page
  347. i: idle page)
  349. First line of above example says 300th block is accessed at 75.033841sec
  350. and the block's state is huge so it is written back to the backing
  351. storage. It's a debugging feature so anyone shouldn't rely on it to work
  352. properly.
  354. Nitin Gupta
  355. ngupta@vflare.org

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